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Rotor Dynamics

Rotor Dynamics

Rotor dynamics is a specialized branch of applied mechanics concerned with the behaviour and diagnosis of rotating structures. It is commonly used to analyse the behaviour of structures ranging from jet engines and steam turbines to auto engines and computer disk storage. At its most basic level, rotor dynamics is concerned with one or more mechanical structures (rotors) supported by bearings and influenced by internal phenomena that rotate around a single axis. The supporting structure is called a stator. As the speed of rotation increases the amplitude of vibration often passes through a maximum that is called a critical speed. This amplitude is commonly excited by unbalance of the rotating structure; everyday examples include engine balance and tire balance. If the amplitude of vibration at these critical speeds is excessive, then catastrophic failure occurs. In addition to this, turbo machinery often develops instabilities which are related to the internal makeup of turbo machinery, and which must be corrected. This is the chief concern of engineers who design large rotors.

Rotating machinery produces vibrations depending upon the structure of the mechanism involved in the process. Any faults in the machine can increase or excite the vibration signatures. Vibration behaviour of the machine due to imbalance is one of the main aspects of rotating machinery which must be studied in detail and considered while designing. All objects including rotating machinery have a natural frequency depending on the structure of the object. The critical speed of a rotating machine occurs when the rotational speed matches its natural frequency.

The lowest speed at which the natural frequency is first encountered is called the first critical speed, but as the speed increases, additional critical speeds are seen. Hence, minimizing rotational unbalance and unnecessary external forces are very important to reducing the overall forces which initiate resonance. When the vibration is in resonance, it creates a destructive energy which should be the main concern when designing a rotating machine. The objective here should be to avoid operations that are close to the critical and pass safely through them when in acceleration or deceleration. If this aspect is ignored it might result in loss of the equipment, excessive wear and tear on the machinery, catastrophic breakage beyond repair or even human injury and loss of lives.

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